Prime numbers are those that **they only have 2 dividers**, since they are only divisible by themselves and by the unit, that is, the number 1. But be careful! They are divisible by both positive and negative numbers. What does this mean? Very easy. A prime number, for example 2, can only be divided by 2, -2, 1, and -1.

Numbers with more than 2 divisors are called **composed numbers**. If we take a composite number, for example, 10, we will see that we can divide it between itself and unity, that is, between 10 and 1, but also between 2 and 5. Therefore, 10 is a composite number.

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## Are all numbers prime or composite?

There are two **"special" numbers** that are neither prime nor compound: **the 0 and the 1**. Why? Let's see it:

- The number 1 can be divided by itself (1/1 = 1) and by unity, that is, the number 1 (1/1 = 1). However, for a number to be considered prime, it must have 2 different divisors. The number 1 only has one divisor, so it is neither a prime nor a composite.
- The 0 cannot be divided by itself, since the result is indeterminate.

So if we remove 0 and 1 from the list, out of the large number of remaining numbers, how do we know which are prime and which are not?

## How to know if a number is prime

The most normal thing is to think about doing it by discard, that is, to go testing until you find the divisors. With a calculator it is quite fast, but if we have to do it upside down or with a pen and paper, things get a bit complicated. We teach you two methods to know if a number is prime or not.

### The sieve of Eratosthenes

The sieve of Eratosthenes is a **technique to know the prime numbers between 2**, which is the first prime number, **and a certain number**.

This method consists of making a table and crossing out the multiples of the whole numbers. First we will eliminate the multiples of 2, then 3, and so on until we reach the number that squared is greater than the last number in the table.

Like everything in mathematics, the Eratosthenes sieve is best understood with an example:

- We make a table with the numbers from 2 to 30.

2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | |

11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 |

21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 |

- We cross out the multiples of 2 from the list, that is, we cross out from 2 to 2: 4, 6, etc. Watch out! The 2, which can only be divided between itself and the number 1, we do not cross it out, since it is a prime number.

2 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 9 | |||||

11 | 13 | 15 | 17 | 19 | |||||

21 | 23 | 25 | 27 | 29 |

- We take the next number, 3, and check that squared is less than the largest number in the table. As 3
^{2}<30, we continue with the sieve and cross out its multiples: 6, 9, 12 ... As in the previous step, we do not cross out the number 3, which is also prime.

2 | 3 | 5 | 7 | ||||||

11 | 13 | 17 | 19 | ||||||

23 | 25 | 29 |

- We repeat the previous step with the next number in the table: 4 is crossed out, so we take 5. As 5
^{2}<30, we cross out their multiples.

2 | 3 | 5 | 7 | ||||||

11 | 13 | 17 | 19 | ||||||

23 | 29 |

- We continue with the following number without crossing out: 7. As 7
^{2}= 49, that is, the square of 7 is greater than the last number in the table, the method ends, and the numbers without crossing out are the prime numbers. - Conclusion. The prime numbers between 2 and 30 are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 and 29.

The Eratosthenes sieve is a quick and easy method to know the prime numbers, but what about**what if the number we want to study is too high**, for example, 54657?

As you understand, it would not be practical to make a table from 2 to 54657, right? What can we do then? Very easy: **use divisibility criteria**.

### Divisibility criteria

The divisibility criteria are **rules to find out if one number is divisible by another without having to do division**.

Thus, if we use these rules and observe that a number is divisible by another number other than itself and the unit, we will know that it is not prime.

- Criterion of divisibility of the number 2. A number is divisible by 2 if it is even, that is, if it ends in 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8. And, here is a trick: like any number divisible by 4, 6 or 8 is also divisible by 2, we will not need to know the divisibility criteria of the other even numbers.
- Criterion of divisibility of the number 3. A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of its digits is a multiple of three. Let's see an example:

267 -> 2 + 6 + 7 = 15

Since 15 is a multiple of 3, 267 is divisible by 3.

In addition, since every number divisible by 9 is also divisible by 3, it will be enough for us to know this criterion.

- Divisibility criterion of the number 5. A number is divisible by 5 if it ends in 0 or 5.
- Criterion of divisibility of the number 7. To find out if a number is divisible by 7, we must subtract the number without the last digit and twice the last digit. If the number obtained is 0 or a multiple of 7, the initial number is divisible by 7. You will understand this better with an example, let's get to it!

378 -> 37 − (8 × 2) = 37 − 16 = 21

Since 21 is a multiple of 7, 378 is divisible by 7.

- Criterion of divisibility of the number 11. If we subtract the sum of the even numbers and the sum of the odd numbers, and the number obtained is 0 or a multiple of 11, that means that the studied number is divisible by 11. Here is an example:

8591 -> (8 + 9) − (5 + 1) = 17 − 6 = 11

Since 11 is a multiple of 11, 8591 is divisible by 11.

And that's all! Now it's your turn: would you already know how to calculate if that high number, 54657, is a prime?

## List of prime numbers from 1 to 10.000

Finally, if you are looking for a list of prime numbers between 1 to 10.000, such as 1 to 100 or 1 to 1.000, here is a complete and updated one:

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151, 157, 163, 167, 173, 179, 181, 191, 193, 197, 199, 211, 223, 227, 229, 233, 239, 241, 251, 257, 263, 269, 271, 277, 281, 283, 293, 307, 311, 313, 317, 331, 337, 347, 349, 353, 359, 367, 373, 379, 383, 389, 397, 401, 409, 419, 421, 431, 433, 439, 443, 449, 457, 461, 463, 467, 479, 487, 491, 499, 503, 509, 521, 523, 541, 547, 557, 563, 569, 571, 577, 587, 593, 599, 601, 607, 613, 617, 619, 631, 641, 643, 647, 653, 659, 661, 673, 677, 683, 691, 701, 709, 719, 727, 733, 739, 743, 751, 757, 761, 769, 773, 787, 797, 809, 811, 821, 823, 827, 829, 839, 853, 857, 859, 863, 877, 881, 883, 887, 907, 911, 919, 929, 937, 941, 947, 953, 967, 971, 977, 983, 991, 997, 1009, 1013, 1019, 1021, 1031, 1033, 1039, 1049, 1051, 1061, 1063, 1069, 1087, 1091, 1093, 1097, 1103, 1109, 1117, 1123, 1129, 1151, 1153, 1163, 1171, 1181, 1187, 1193, 1201, 1213, 1217, 1223, 1229, 1231, 1237, 1249, 1259, 1277, 1279, 1283, 1289, 1291, 1297, 1301, 1303, 1307, 1319, 1321, 1327, 1361, 1367, 1373, 1381, 1399, 1409, 1423, 1427, 1429, 1433, 1439, 1447, 1451, 1453, 1459, 1471, 1481, 1483, 1487, 1489, 1493, 1499, 1511, 1523, 1531, 1543, 1549, 1553, 1559, 1567, 1571, 1579, 1583, 1597, 1601, 1607, 1609, 1613, 1619, 1621, 1627, 1637, 1657, 1663, 1667, 1669, 1693, 1697, 1699, 1709, 1721, 1723, 1733, 1741, 1747, 1753, 1759, 1777, 1783, 1787, 1789, 1801, 1811, 1823, 1831, 1847, 1861, 1867, 1871, 1873, 1877, 1879, 1889, 1901, 1907, 1913, 1931, 1933, 1949, 1951, 1973, 1979, 1987, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2011, 2017, 2027, 2029, 2039, 2053, 2063, 2069, 2081, 2083, 2087, 2089, 2099, 2111, 2113, 2129, 2131, 2137, 2141, 2143, 2153, 2161, 2179, 2203, 2207, 2213, 2221, 2237, 2239, 2243, 2251, 2267, 2269, 2273, 2281, 2287, 2293, 2297, 2309, 2311, 2333, 2339, 2341, 2347, 2351, 2357, 2371, 2377, 2381, 2383, 2389, 2393, 2399, 2411, 2417, 2423, 2437, 2441, 2447, 2459, 2467, 2473, 2477, 2503, 2521, 2531, 2539, 2543, 2549, 2551, 2557, 2579, 2591, 2593, 2609, 2617, 2621, 2633, 2647, 2657, 2659, 2663, 2671, 2677, 2683, 2687, 2689, 2693, 2699, 2707, 2711, 2713, 2719, 2729, 2731, 2741, 2749, 2753, 2767, 2777, 2789, 2791, 2797, 2801, 2803, 2819, 2833, 2837, 2843, 2851, 2857, 2861, 2879, 2887, 2897, 2903, 2909, 2917, 2927, 2939, 2953, 2957, 2963, 2969, 2971, 2999, 3001, 3011, 3019, 3023, 3037, 3041, 3049, 3061, 3067, 3079, 3083, 3089, 3109, 3119, 3121, 3137, 3163, 3167, 3169, 3181, 3187, 3191, 3203, 3209, 3217, 3221, 3229, 3251, 3253, 3257, 3259, 3271, 3299, 3301, 3307, 3313, 3319, 3323, 3329, 3331, 3343, 3347, 3359, 3361, 3371, 3373, 3389, 3391, 3407, 3413, 3433, 3449, 3457, 3461, 3463, 3467, 3469, 3491, 3499, 3511, 3517, 3527, 3529, 3533, 3539, 3541, 3547, 3557, 3559, 3571, 3581, 3583, 3593, 3607, 3613, 3617, 3623, 3631, 3637, 3643, 3659, 3671, 3673, 3677, 3691, 3697, 3701, 3709, 3719, 3727, 3733, 3739, 3761, 3767, 3769, 3779, 3793, 3797, 3803, 3821, 3823, 3833, 3847, 3851, 3853, 3863, 3877, 3881, 3889, 3907, 3911, 3917, 3919, 3923, 3929, 3931, 3943, 3947, 3967, 3989, 4001, 4003, 4007, 4013, 4019, 4021, 4027, 4049, 4051, 4057, 4073, 4079, 4091, 4093, 4099, 4111, 4127, 4129, 4133, 4139, 4153, 4157, 4159, 4177, 4201, 4211, 4217, 4219, 4229, 4231, 4241, 4243, 4253, 4259, 4261, 4271, 4273, 4283, 4289, 4297, 4327, 4337, 4339, 4349, 4357, 4363, 4373, 4391, 4397, 4409, 4421, 4423, 4441, 4447, 4451, 4457, 4463, 4481, 4483, 4493, 4507, 4513, 4517, 4519, 4523, 4547, 4549, 4561, 4567, 4583, 4591, 4597, 4603, 4621, 4637, 4639, 4643, 4649, 4651, 4657, 4663, 4673, 4679, 4691, 4703, 4721, 4723, 4729, 4733, 4751, 4759, 4783, 4787, 4789, 4793, 4799, 4801, 4813, 4817, 4831, 4861, 4871, 4877, 4889, 4903, 4909, 4919, 4931, 4933, 4937, 4943, 4951, 4957, 4967, 4969, 4973, 4987, 4993, 4999, 5003, 5009, 5011, 5021, 5023, 5039, 5051, 5059, 5077, 5081, 5087, 5099, 5101, 5107, 5113, 5119, 5147, 5153, 5167, 5171, 5179, 5189, 5197, 5209, 5227, 5231, 5233, 5237, 5261, 5273, 5279, 5281, 5297, 5303, 5309, 5323, 5333, 5347, 5351, 5381, 5387, 5393, 5399, 5407, 5413, 5417, 5419, 5431, 5437, 5441, 5443, 5449, 5471, 5477, 5479, 5483, 5501, 5503, 5507, 5519, 5521, 5527, 5531, 5557, 5563, 5569, 5573, 5581, 5591, 5623, 5639, 5641, 5647, 5651, 5653, 5657, 5659, 5669, 5683, 5689, 5693, 5701, 5711, 5717, 5737, 5741, 5743, 5749, 5779, 5783, 5791, 5801, 5807, 5813, 5821, 5827, 5839, 5843, 5849, 5851, 5857, 5861, 5867, 5869, 5879, 5881, 5897, 5903, 5923, 5927, 5939, 5953, 5981, 5987, 6007, 6011, 6029, 6037, 6043, 6047, 6053, 6067, 6073, 6079, 6089, 6091, 6101, 6113, 6121, 6131, 6133, 6143, 6151, 6163, 6173, 6197, 6199, 6203, 6211, 6217, 6221, 6229, 6247, 6257, 6263, 6269, 6271, 6277, 6287, 6299, 6301, 6311, 6317, 6323, 6329, 6337, 6343, 6353, 6359, 6361, 6367, 6373, 6379, 6389, 6397, 6421, 6427, 6449, 6451, 6469, 6473, 6481, 6491, 6521, 6529, 6547, 6551, 6553, 6563, 6569, 6571, 6577, 6581, 6599, 6607, 6619, 6637, 6653, 6659, 6661, 6673, 6679, 6689, 6691, 6701, 6703, 6709, 6719, 6733, 6737, 6761, 6763, 6779, 6781, 6791, 6793, 6803, 6823, 6827, 6829, 6833, 6841, 6857, 6863, 6869, 6871, 6883, 6899, 6907, 6911, 6917, 6947, 6949, 6959, 6961, 6967, 6971, 6977, 6983, 6991, 6997, 7001, 7013, 7019, 7027, 7039, 7043, 7057, 7069, 7079, 7103, 7109, 7121, 7127, 7129, 7151, 7159, 7177, 7187, 7193, 7207, 7211, 7213, 7219, 7229, 7237, 7243, 7247, 7253, 7283, 7297, 7307, 7309, 7321, 7331, 7333, 7349, 7351, 7369, 7393, 7411, 7417, 7433, 7451, 7457, 7459, 7477, 7481, 7487, 7489, 7499, 7507, 7517, 7523, 7529, 7537, 7541, 7547, 7549, 7559, 7561, 7573, 7577, 7583, 7589, 7591, 7603, 7607, 7621, 7639, 7643, 7649, 7669, 7673, 7681, 7687, 7691, 7699, 7703, 7717, 7723, 7727, 7741, 7753, 7757, 7759, 7789, 7793, 7817, 7823, 7829, 7841, 7853, 7867, 7873, 7877, 7879, 7883, 7901, 7907, 7919