Nhamba dzeMayan kubva 1 kusvika 1000

VaMaya vaive mamwe emarudzi makuru uye epamberi zvikuru muMesoamerica uye nepasirese. Tsika yeMayan inotsungirira muYucatan Peninsula, Mexico, uye mune dzimwe nzvimbo dzeGuatemala. Pasina mubvunzo chimwe chezvinhu chakanyanya kukwezva maMayan ndechekuti ivo vaive vemberi kana vachienzaniswa nevamwe vanhu, vane ruzivo rwakakura rwekuongorora nyeredzi uye yakakwana kwazvo kuverenga manhamba. Muchikamu chino tichanyanya Nhamba dzeMayan uye iwe unogona kudzidza izvo zvekutanga.

mureza wepamutemo wema mayan

Iyo Mayan nhamba sisitimu inokwezva yakawanda yekutarisisa nekuti yaive yakazara kwazvo uye yakagadziriswa, kunyangwe yakave yakagadzirirwa zvakasununguka. Iyi budiriro yakanga iine pfungwa yakajeka ye cero, chimwe chinhu icho vaEurope vasina kuva nacho kusvikira vaHindu vavaratidza icho.

Ese manhamba eMayan

Tevere tinonyora manhamba ese eMayan kubva pa1 kusvika 1000. Pane mifananidzo yakati wandei yaunokwanisa kurodha pasi pakombuta, nharembozha uye kunyange kupurinda kuti udzidze zvakanyanya muudzame.

kubva 1 kusvika 100

Nhamba dzeMayan kubva pa1 kusvika zana

kubva 1 kusvika 500


kubva 1 kusvika 1000

Nhamba dzeMayan kubva pa1 kusvika zana

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Nhoroondo yenhamba dzeMayan

Nyanzvi dzinofunga kuti iyo Maya kunyora system ndeye hieroglyphs, nekuti ine zvimwe zvakafanana nehurongwa hwaishandiswa muIjipita yeIjipita. Kunyora kwake kwaiumbwa nemubatanidzwa wemadigiramu uye zviratidzo zvefonetiki, saka zvinonetsa kuti utore zvirimo.

Iko hakuna ruzivo rwakawanda nezve iko kunyora kwaMayan nekuti vafundisi veSpain vakaraira kupisa mabhuku ese eMayan.

Chinhu chinonakidza pamusoro peMayan kuverenga manhamba ndechekuti vakaigadzira kuyera nguva uye kwete kuita masvomhu kuverenga. Saka, Nhamba dzeMayan dzine hukama hwakanangana nemazuva, mwedzi nemakore, ndosaka karenda yaMayan iri rimwe remabasa ake anozivikanwa uye iri yeimwe yakakwana uye yakarurama pasi rose.

Saizvozvo, manhamba uye masvomhu system yeMaya ndiyo yekutanga kugadzira mamiriro ezvinhu. Ndokunge, kukosha kwe digit kana nhamba zvinoenderana nenzvimbo yayo. Izvi ini ndichatsanangura zvakadzama pazasi.

Manhamba aMayan Akanyorwa Sei

Kuverenga kwaMayan kuri nyore kwazvo kunzwisisa uye kunzwisisa. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti pane chete zviratidzo zvitatu, kunyangwe mafomu anogona kusiyana zvichienderana nekushandisa kwavanopihwa. Mamwe manhamba aive emakodhekisi, mamwe ezvivakwa uye vamwe vaitove nevanhu.

Iwo matatu ezviratidzo ekutanga atinogona kuwana mumayan manhamba ndeaya: Pfungwa (1), tambo (5) uye hozhwa / mhodzi / goko (0).

dziri sei mayan nhamba

Nokubatanidza izvi zviratidzo zvitatu, nhamba dzeMayan kubva pa0 kusvika pa 20. Kubva pano zvichienda mberi, zvakakosha kuti iwe urambe uchifunga kuti mune Mayan kuverenga huwandu hwakakamurwa makumi maviri nemakumi maviri.

Ko zvakadii nhamba dzaMayan kubva makumi maviri nesere zvichienda mberi? Iko pano paunogona kukoshesa iyo mamiriro ezvinhu yevaMayan, umo kukosha kwenhamba kana chimiro zvinosiyana zvichienderana nenzvimbo yazvinowanikwa, zvinoenderana nenzvimbo yakatwasuka iyo nhamba inogara.

Pazasi pane manhamba (iwo anoenda kubva pa0 kusvika pa20), nepo padanho repamusoro manhamba akakosha manhamba akawedzeredzwa nemakumi maviri.

Semuenzaniso, munhamba makumi maviri neshanu: muchikamu chepasi pane zvishanu (mutsetse wakaenzana ne25), uye chikamu chepamusoro chakaenzana nemakumi maviri 5).

Kana iyo nhamba iine yechitatu nhanho, ipapo nhamba iri padanho rechitatu ichawedzerwa ne3 (20 x 20). Paunosvika pakushandisa nhanho yechina, ipapo nhamba iri mudanho rechina ichawedzerwa ne4 (20x20x20).

Hunhu hweMayan kuverenga

Sezvandambotaura, chimwe chezvikonzero nei mayan kuverenga manhamba akwezva kutariswa kwevanyanzvi ndechekuti yaive nehupamhi hwehukama hwakave hwakagadzirwa wega uye anopfuura makore zviuru zviviri apfuura, nekuti kutsvagurudza kwakaratidza kuti yakasikwa mazana yemakore BC Kune rimwe divi, zvinoratidzika kuve zviriko tsika yekutanga mukondinendi yese yeAmerica kuve nepfungwa yekuti "hapana" kana "zero".

Kupesana nezvatinogona kufunga pakutanga kuona, veMayan havana kugadzira yavo manhamba sisitimu yekuita masvomhu mashandiro, asi asi vaiishandisa kuyera nguva. Izvi zvinozivikanwa nekuda kwekuti vanochera matongo vakawana pazvinosara panotariswa manhamba achiyera nguva uye kupatsanurwa kuita zvikamu zvidimbu. Kunyangwe hazvo zvakadaro, ivo vaishandisawo kutaura zvimwe zvinhu.

Iyo vigesimal system yeMayan inoonekwa seimwe yeakarurama kwazvo pasi rose. Saizvozvo, zvinotendwa izvozvo Karenda yaMayan yakaringana kupfuura pakarenda yaGregory uye kuti yakatombove neyakaenzana seyesystem yazvino.

Kunyangwe iko kushandiswa kukuru kwehurongwa hwavo hwekuverenga kwaive kuyera nguva, nekutenda kwairi vakaitawo fambiro mberi huru mujometri, nyeredzi uye masvomhu.

Nezve geometry, zvinozivikanwa kuti Mayas aive akajeka kwazvo nezve iyo pfungwa yeatatu, mraba, rectangle, denderedzwa uye kutenderera, uyezve vaigona kuyera makona. Ivo vaiziva huwandu hukuru hwejometri manhamba uye mavhoriyamu ejometri, vane kugona kuyera nekuishandisa ivo panguva yavo.

Iyo Mayan yekuverenga system yatiri kutaura nezvayo ndiyo inonyanya kukosha uye inozivikanwa, asi haisi iyo chete yekuverenga manhamba sisitimu inoshandiswa nemaMayan.

Mayan "musoro" kuverenga system

Iyi imwe yekuverenga manhamba yavakashandisa ine hunhu nekuti ivo vaishandisa misoro yevanamwari vakasiyana kumiririra manhamba, ndosaka ichizivikanwa se musoro kuverenga system. Iyo zvakare iri vigeimal system uye yayo huru nhamba ndeye makumi maviri.

Mune ino system yekuverenga huwandu hwakanyanya hwamwari hwaigona kumiririrwa hwaive gumi nemana, saka dzaingokwana kuvhara nhamba kubva pa0 kusvika pa13. Chii chawakaita kumiririra nhamba nhanhatu dzakashaikwa kusvika pa6? Vakaisa nhamba dzaMayan kubva pa19 kusvika pa10 pachikamu chepazasi chechire chemwari chaimiririra gumi.

Pasina kupokana iyi yakaoma uye isina kukwana sisitimu, ndosaka isina kushandiswa munharaunda zhinji dzeMayan, mazhinji acho aishandisa nzira yemapoinzi, mitsetse uye hozhwa.

MaMayan aive emamwe mabudiriro uye anoshamisa munyika, pamwe akanyanya kufambiswa kwenguva yavo munzira dzakawanda. Kufambira mberi kwayo musvomhu, manhamba ayo, manhamba ayo, magadzirirwo ayo, ruzivo rwayo rwezvose, nezvimwewo, mune zvakawanda zvezvinhu izvi zvakapfuura chero hupfumi hwazvino.

Tevere isu tichaenda kuona vhidhiyo inonakidza kwazvo nezve manhamba eMayan:

Kunyangarika kwake uye ramangwana

Nyanzvi dzinotenda kuti kutsakatika kwehupenyu hweMayan kwakaitika pakati pe XNUMXth uye XNUMXth century yenguva yedu, inova chimwe chezvakavanzika zvikuru munhoroondo yevanhu. Kusvikira nhasi chikonzero chekusiiwa kunofambira mberi kwemaguta makuru eMayan, ayo akange ave maguta makuru ane hukuru hwetsika uye tekinoroji, hazvizivikanwe. Vanyori vezvakaitika kare vanoramba vachitsvaga nzira dzekutsakatika kwake.

Parizvino, kumwe kufungidzira kuri pamusoro pekusiiwa kwemaguta eMayan kunotaura nezve njodzi dzinongoitika dzega, kurwiswa nehumambo hwakasimba kana kunyangwe kupera kwezviwanikwa zvakavamanikidza kuenda kunzvimbo dzine nyika dzakaorera. Zvisinei, hapana imwe yedzidziso idzi dzakaratidza.

Asi, Ko kudonha uku kwairevei kune mayan manhamba system, yavo kalendari uye ese mafambiro avakange vaita? Ruzivo rwese urwu rwaive rwakakwirira zvakanyanya kupfuura rweEuropeanhasi uye pamwe nenyika.

imwe yemapiramidhi mazhinji ebudiriro yeMayan

VaSpanish pavakasvika muYucatán muzana ramakore rechi XNUMX, kudonha kwehupenyu hweMayan kwakaitika mazana emakore apfuura, saka kubatana kwevaSpanish nevamwe vese vechiMayan tsika kwanga kusiri kwakakosha sekukosha kwavakaita nevaAztec nedzimwe budiriro. iyo ichiri kuchengetedza zvivakwa zvikuru.

Nhaka yemasvomhu yeMayan yakaunganidzwa nevanhu vakagara munzvimbo imwechete yenzvimbo kuti ivo, kunyanya maAztec, avo vakamirawo nekushandisa kwavo kukuru masvomhu, kunyangwe iyo yeAztec yemasvomhu system yaive nemisiyano yakati wandei zvine chekuita neMayan system.

Nekuguma kwehupenyu hweAztec uye humwe hupfumi hukuru hweMesoamerica, zvakasara zvetsika yeMayan zvakasara munhoroondo. Izvo zvakasara zvinosara zvekudzidza uye ruzivo rwedu zvashoma uye zvinonyanya kukosha.. Pakati pezvasara zveruzivo rweMayan, iyo Dresden Codex inomira kunze, rinova iro bhuku rekaresa muAmerica yese, mairi mune chikamu chakazara chakatsaurirwa kukerenda nehurongwa hwayo hwekuverenga.

Kudzidzira

Tevere, isu takagadzirira mashoma ekurovedza muviri kuitira kuti iwe ugone kuyedza ruzivo rwako rweMayan manhamba. Unogona kuongorora zvatave kudzidza muchinyorwa zvacho pasina dambudziko, chakakosha ndechekuti iwe chengeta izvo zvekutanga uye zvakakosha 🙂 Rombo rakanaka!

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